2 Standards, definitions and books


2.1 Standards

Standards and references

Jokes on anti-bribery


The main standards related to the prevention of bribery are:explications

None of these standards are mandatory, but as Deming said:

It is not necessary to change. Survival is not mandatory

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2.2 Definitions

Terms and definitions related to bribery and management systems


The beginning of wisdom is the definition of terms. Socrates

The verb to corrupt comes from the Latin corrumpere: to break completely, to deteriorate, physically or morally.

There are many definitions of the word corruption (bribery). Some examples:

Our preference:

Briberyabuse of power for personal gain

In order not to confuse hazard and risk, some simple examples are shown in table 2-1:
Table 2-1

Hazard Risk
 slippery ground  broken leg
 electricity  electrocution
 tobacco  lung cancer
 climb a ladder  to break an arm falling

As shown in 2-1 the time of exposure to hazard multiplies the risk:


Figure 2-1. Hazard exposure

Risk (and its level) is a function of impact and likelihood (figure 2-2).

Figure 2-2. Risk level

The risk is residual when the impact and likelihood are low, cf. figure 2-3. As soon as the impact and likelihood are high, we approach the critical zone (red).


Figure 2-3. Risk criticality

More details on the risk levels are shown in annex 02.

Some definitions and acronyms related to bribery, risk and the management system:

ABMS: anti-bribery management system
Active bribery: the corruptor's proposal of an unfair advantage
Anti-bribery management system (ABMS): set of processes to reduce bribery
Benchmarking: comparative analysis method in connection with one or more competitors
Brainstorming: team approach to developing ideas and finding solutions
Bribe (bakchich): payment to a civil servant so that he acts more favorably
Bribery risk management: refers to the aspects of the policies and practices of an institution (public or private) which define, make it possible to assess and aim to mitigate the internal and external risks of corruption present in the context of its activities (OECD)
Business risk management: global approach to controlling uncertainties and their interactions in business
Cf.: confer (from Latin), compare, see
Control: see inspection
Customer: the person who receives a product
Due diligence: assessment of the risk of bribery and actions to reduce this risk
Fraud: falsification of data, invoices and other administrative documents
Grand corruption: high and very high level corruption (policy makers)
Hazard: situation that could lead to an incident
Identify the hazard: ask yourself what could go wrong
Impact: consequence of an event affecting the objectives
Inspection: the actions of measuring, testing and examining a process, product or material to establish whether requirements are met 
Likelihood: possibility that something happens
Management system: set of processes allowing objectives to be achieved
Misappropriation of funds: theft of public resources by an official
MS: management system
Nonconformity: non-fulfillment of a specified requirement
Non-quality: gap between expected quality and perceived quality
Opportunity: uncertain event that could have a favorable impact
Organization (company): structure that satisfies a need
Passive bribery: the acceptance of the corrupted of an unfair advantage
Petty bribery: bribery in public administration
Quality: aptitude to fulfill requirements
Requirement: implicit or explicit need or expectation
Responsibility: capacity to make a decision alone
Risk analysis: activity to understand the nature of a risk and determine its impact
Risk assessment: process for identifying, analyzing and evaluating risk
Risk factor (peril, danger): element likely to cause a risk
Risk identification: assessment activity to find and describe risks
Risk level: criticality of the risk according to the impact and likelihood
Risk management plan: risk management planning including approach, steps, methods, resources
Risk management: activities to restrict the possibility that something goes wrong
Risk manager: person with the responsibility and authority to manage risk
Risk prevention: activities based on decreasing risk likelihood of occurrence
Risk protection: activities based on reducing risk impacts
Risk severity: measurement of risk impact
Risk threshold: acceptance limit (below) or non-tolerance limit (above)
Risk treatment: risk modification activities
Risk: likelihood of occurrence of a threat or an opportunity
Safety: absence of unacceptable risk
Strategy: total approach to achieve objectives
System: set of interactive processes
Threat: uncertain event that could have a negative impact on the objectives
Uncertainty: existence of more than one possibilit

In the terminology of management systems, do not confuse:


Figure 2-4 Prevention and protection

Remark 1: between stakeholders and interested parties our preference is for stakeholders

Remark 2: between impact, gravity, consequence and severity our preference is for impact

Remark 3: between anti-bribery manager and anti-corruption compliance or anti-corruption officer our preference is for anti-bribery manager

Remark 4: between likelihood and probability our preference is for likelihood (of occurrence)

Remark 5: a risk can have negative impacts (we speak of threats) or positive impacts (we speak of opportunities), cf. ISO 21500, 4.3.28. Seizing an opportunity is taking risks, but not seizing an opportunity can put us at risk. Often risk is equated with hazard (danger) and commonly used instead of threat

Remark 6: each time you use the expression "opportunity for improvement" instead of nonconformity, malfunction or failure, you will gain a little more trust from your interlocutor (external or internal customer)

For other definitions, comments, explanations and interpretations that you cannot find in this module and annex 06, you can consult:explications

The icons used in the module:

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2.3 Books

Books related to bribery and corruption


When I think of all the books still left for me to read, I'm certain of further happiness. Jules Renard

To go further, some books, listed in chronological order:explications

Some sites, rich in documents on the prevention of bribery:

And free online training from the UN: https://thefightagainstcorruption.org/:

“This e-learning tool is a joint product of the UN Global Compact and the UN Office on Drugs and Crime. It uses six interactive learning modules to further the audience's understanding of the UN Global Compact's 10th principle against corruption and the UN Convention against Corruption as it applies to the private sector. The tool is targeted at everyone who acts on behalf of a company. Each module only lasts about five minutes, providing a quick and effective way of learning. And it is fun too!”

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